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append_by_ref() — append values by reference


void append_by_ref(string varname,
                   mixed var,
                   bool merge);

This is used to append() values to the templates by reference. If you append a variable by reference then change its value, the appended value sees the change as well. For objects, append_by_ref() also avoids an in-memory copy of the appended object. See the PHP manual on variable referencing for an in-depth explanation. If you pass the optional third parameter of TRUE, the value will be merged with the current array instead of appended.

Technical Note

The merge parameter respects array keys, so if you merge two numerically indexed arrays, they may overwrite each other or result in non-sequential keys. This is unlike the PHP array_merge() function which wipes out numerical keys and renumbers them.

Example 13.2. append_by_ref

// appending name/value pairs
$smarty->append_by_ref('Name', $myname);
$smarty->append_by_ref('Address', $address);


See also append(), assign() and get_template_vars().

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